Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Jonathan Edwards And Benjamin Franklin Essay From their basic appraisals on the most proficient method to develop themselves and to the Americanpublic that they impacted by their works, Jonathan Edwards and BenjaminFranklin represent American topics in their own stories thatquintessentially make some portion of American Literature. In spite of the fact that they lived apathetic occasions during the early improvement of the United States of America andwrote for various purposes, they share regular subjects. Their impact by theirenvironment, independence, recommendations for a superior society, and occasions thataffected their general public create from their works. By investigating JonathanEdwards Personal Narrative, Resolutions, Sinnersin the Hands of an Angry God, and determinations from Benjamin Franklins TheAutobiography of Benjamin Franklin found in The Heath Anthology of AmericanLiterature: Third Edition Volume One altered by Paul Lauter, the fundamentalthemes in American writing are clear and their individual thoughts are distinctive. These individual accounts uncover the impacts of theirenvironment that gave them revelations to their closer flawlessness of themselves. Jonathan Edwards Personal Narrative shows his excursion towards acloser relationship to God. His family was adherents of the CongregationalistChurch, and from youth, he followed a Christian life (Lauter 569). Inthe start of his collection of memoirs, Personal Narrative, he saysI had an assortment of concerns and exercise about my spirit from my childhood;but had two increasingly striking periods of Mckenize 2 arousing, before I met withthat change, by which I was brought to those new auras, and that newsense of things, that I have had (Lauter 581). Edwards suffers arite of entry, which carries him closer to God. These epiphaniesassisted on his evaluation of improving as a man according to God andminister to his locale. Benjamin Franklin didn't hold his family convictions ofChristianity, yet from his initial condition, he attracted his relationship to God asa Deist. Franklin accepted there is a Supreme Being and it is our activity todiscover our own world by thinking. In his self-port rayal, he notes severalepiphanies that changed his way of life. For instance, he lamented his leavingMiss Read for England without seeking after their relationship further. He callsthese second thoughts or bad behaviors Erratum (Lauter 788). The spiritualityof Franklin and Edwards is unmistakable, and their compositions reflect theirexperiences and development of progress. Franklin as a Deist felt that he createdhis fate by the choices he made. His collection of memoirs shows his faultsand achievements. This transparency expects to the crowd, the American, in orderfor them to rethink themselves and improve from their shortcomings. Franklinwanted Americans to turn out to be better Americans. With Edwards convictions, he felt thatgod fated each man, and just the choose entered in theafterlife to paradise. He centers his composition to the Christian crowd. His goalis to set them up to become contender to be choose and show how theelect can set a model for the remainder of the gathering . These menfelt the obligation to carry on with a superior life and set the model for each manin their locale. As people, they continually examine andself-assess there position throughout everyday life and Mckenzie 3 network. In Early AmericanLiterature: A Collection of Critical Essays, the proofreader Michael T. Gilmorewrites in the presentation, in their psyches the Bible wasthe book of history, and typology uncovered the formative example of eventsby discovering correspondences between the Old and New Testaments (2). Edwardsconstantly puts his life as per the book of scriptures. He accepted like Winthrop,that his locale needs to plan and become a city upon a hill(Gilmore 2). Through his consideration and objectives seen inResolutions, he continually looks to develop himself, so he canfulfill Gods plan for another Holy Land, which is his gathering in NewEngland. His sole focus was deciphering the Bible and living by itswords. He recorded his objectives to develop himself and set a guide to hiscommunity. Benjamin Franklin looks for indistinguishable objectives from an individual, however hedesires to improve the American man. In Soundings: Some EarlyAmerican Writers, Lewis Leary composes Franklin was the genuine Americanconstantly rethinks himselfnone better spoke to the straightforward, noblemenwho lived near nature dedicated to her laws uncontaminated byartificialities of court or town (9, 11). Franklin records excellencies that heintended his crowd to attempt to follow when they decided to develop themselves. Byexplaining that nobody can change for the time being and take a shot at one bad habit untilsuccessively vanquished, for example, modesty, each man can get self-improvementand further add to their locale (Lauter 810-11). With a journal anddocumenting every bad habit, Edward tried to conquer his transgressions, be nearer to God, andteach from his experience the need to set the best model as one of theelect. With Franklins table of vanquishing indecenc ies, he needed to becloser to being highminded. These men reported their advancement of theirself-characterized goals with expectations of their locale to follow Mckenzie 4 bytheir model. They want to be powerful by their own penances and catchattention and regard by their locale. Edwards and Franklins writingsreflect the political and social partitions in their general public. While Franklinteaches through composing the occasions to all Americans for the requirement for a closersociety after the Revolutionary War, Edward lectures his assemblage theneed to tie together and look for salvation during when America redefinedreligion. In, Sinners of an Angry God, Edwards responds with outrage andfierceness to his assembly in the response to the GreatAwakening. In his message to his congregation, Edwards subject is to supplication the manynot spared and destined to punishment. He lectures, presently you have anextraordinary opportunity, a day wherein Christ has tossed the entryway of merc ywide open (Lauter 602). He requests to redirect the impact of uncertifiedpreachers and remain near the network and spare themselves. His thought ofholding a network is by danger of punishment. As Ursula Brumm clarifies in heressay Jonathan Edwards and Typology, in Early American Literature: ACollection of Critical Essays, Edwards partook central core in theevents of the Great Awakening. He respected this development with overwhelmingexpectations in the conviction that it denoted the start of the millennium(71). Edwards felt that the enticements of Satan was the reason for this event,and forcibly in this message, he endeavored to hold his assembly during thistest by God who needed to see who was reliable. Franklin was not as strong inhis endeavor to impact man to turn out to be increasingly devoted. He just needed some tofollow the way that he cleared. He talks about that the utilization of his rundown ofvirtues and how they make man a productive member of society. He says its each onesinterest to be idealistic, who wishd to be glad even in this world (Lauter818). His point is to show men, that Mckenzie 5 writing, as hisautobiography, assists men with examining their own mistakes and right (Leary 15). Thetheme of clothes to newfound wealth rules Franklin self-portrayal and it is acommon subject utilized by numerous American scholars. At the time after America won itsindependence, the country battled for the ID of a model resident. Tomato Fishing EssayNot just did Benjamin Franklin love freedom, he likewise had extraordinary ability asa representative. In this job, Franklin
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Inspiration at Work - Essay Example The main persuasive hypothesis that will be considered is Maslow's chain of command of necessities hypothesis. This is a substance hypothesis that expresses that there are five degrees of necessities that an individual travels through. The main level is physiological requirements, which alludes to the fundamental requirement for food and haven. The subsequent level is wellbeing needs, which incorporates having employer stability. The third level is belongingness needs, which alludes to a person's have to feel like they are a piece of something and to feel that their commitment is significant. The fourth level is regard, which alludes to a person's have to like themselves, including feeling that their work is valued. The fifth and last level is self-actualisation, which alludes to the individual inclination that they are understanding their latent capacity. This last level speaks to the individual being at their generally inspired. Now, the representative attempts to be as well as can be expected be, while feeling greatest fulfillment and keeping in mind that additionally feeling that their commitment is esteemed. The significant thing about the chain of importance is that people can't accomplish any phase without first advancing through the prior stages (Daft 1997, p. 529). Consequently, a worker can't arrive at the self-actualisation stage if their physiological, wellbeing, belongingness and regard needs have not first been met. This implies an administrator must guarantee that each degree of need is accommodated on the off chance that they need representatives to be profoundly energetic. The primary level is physiological necessities, which is the requirement for food. To accommodate this need, the administrator needs to guarantee that representatives are satisfactorily redressed. The following stage is wellbeing needs. Wellbeing needs have been accommodated when representatives feel that they have employer stability and that they are genuinely protected insi de the work environment. The third stage is belongingness needs, which alludes to a representative's have to feel that they are a piece of something. This implies guaranteeing that representatives know their job in the association and how they fit into the association all in all. The fourth stage is regard needs, which is simply the worker's have to like themselves. To accomplish this, workers should be adulated for their activities. This recognition could be as a fiscal prize, an honor for their endeavors, or a basic much obliged. This can likewise be accomplished by allowing the worker a chance to accomplish that they have an inclination that they are contributing. The last stage is self-actualisation. This stage happens when every other need have been met. At this stage, representatives work for themselves, as much with respect to the organization, where they want to accomplish objectives since it makes a difference to them. This is the most extreme inspiration reachable dependen t on the way that all people will at last worth themselves more than any other individual. This hypothesis can be applied by chiefs by perceiving the level that representatives are at and taking activities to assist them with advancing through the phases until they arrive at the most extreme degree of inspiration. The following hypothesis that will be considered is ERG hypothesis. It is another substance hypothesis and is very like Maslow's hypothesis. ERG hypothesis portrays three degrees of inspiration: presence needs, relatedness needs, and development needs. The main degree of presence needs is like Maslow
Sunday, July 26, 2020
How To Avoid The Pressure of Becoming A STEM Major (If Thats Not Your Thing) Welcome to the generation of STEM! Now, if youâre anything like me, STEM is not your thing. At all. Throughout high school, I found some STEM subjects interesting like psychology and biology, but I always found myself being captivated by other subjects such as history and English. History in particular was constantly making me think, even outside of class, and I found myself always asking, âWhy?â about everything. I wanted to know the backstory about the world and society I live in and use that information to make a change. This meant that STEM-based majors and fields that me and my peers were frequently being pushed towards was a life that I knew would make me unhappy in college. Yet, when it seems like the entire world is shouting about how amazing and lucrative a career and life in STEM is, it can be very difficult to not get caught up in all of the ruckus. Now, this isnât to say that STEM majors and fields are bad in anyway, because they are absolutely not. No field or major is better than another. But, each generation finds themselves being pushed to go into a particular field of work once itâs time to head to college and my generationâs has surely been STEM. STEM fields can be seen being pushed for in the news, at high schoolsâ clubs and fairs, and even from our own family members and peers at times. In fact, there is even a large proportion of college scholarships and opportunities directly for students who are studying a field in STEM. All of these aspects can become extremely discouraging if, like myself, a life in STEM is not for you. It can begin to feel like if you declare a non-STEM major, your experience at college will be bleaker and lack support, leading to an unfulfilling career. Well, Iâm here to tell you that none of that is true! What leads to a bleak and unfulfilling college experience is declaring a major that doesnât make you happy. Your major should be something you love, and if thatâs not STEM, thatâs okay! My experience as a History and Gender and Women Studies double major has definitely proven that time and time again. For one, I learned that there is plenty of support for non-STEM majors at the University of Illinois! From the LAS-ACES Career Fair held every year to the newly added Humanities Professional Resource Center (to name a few) there are an abundance of services specifically designed to assist non-STEM majors pursue whatever career options you want. Other resources such as the Career Center are also open to all majors and are just as equipped and willing to help out non-STEM majors. As far as scholarships and study abroad opportunities go, I have discovered a number of lucrative scholarships for University of Illinois students who are non-STEM majors, and the amount of non-STEM focused study abroad programs here is abundant! Even individual departments like my own offer and constantly promote scholarships to their students to ensure that they can take their college journey in any direction they want. There are also just as many student organizations at the University of Illinois for non-STEM majors! From academic fraternities to a wide variety of creative writing student organizations, I have never felt like I was missing out when it comes to other academic spaces that tailor to my interests and career plans. Something I hear often after telling people what I study is, âOh, there must be no opportunities for you to get involved in your department.â This is a common assumption about non-STEM fields since when most people think of research, they picture a person in a lab. But, in just two years, I have had the opportunity to work within both of my academic departments and even serve as a research assistant for a professor! At the end of the day, college is about studying what you are most passionate about, and the University of Illinois definitely allows you to do that. If your passion is STEM, there is absolutely nothing wrong with that, and I encourage you to pursue it! But, if you are anything like high-school-senior me realizing that STEM was not her passion, do not be afraid to pursue a non-STEM field at the University of Illinois. You will find that your experience here will not be of lesser quality, and you will be studying what you love, which is most important. ?? humanities majors STEM Taylor Class of 2021 Hey yâall, Iâm a History and Gender and Women Studies double major and a French minor from Chicago! I concentrate in all things Black and Black women studies and love long-distance running.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Unsurprisingly, many historic cultures have not been accurately studied in modernity. Due to personal biases, incomplete data, or a multitude of other issues, incorrect perceptions about these collapsed societies remain. However, modern studies are beginning to reveal the inaccuracies of those enduring, false notions. It is valuable to compare misunderstandings to the historic reality in addition to discovering why the past happened as it did. Although newer, more factual information will not erase long-taught misconceptions about collapsed societies like Jamestown, El Dorado, or the Norse Greenlanders, it provides the chance to better understand historic events in an effort to help guide decisions that could affect the near and distant future. Jamestown has a permanently secured place in American history as the young countryÃ¢â¬â¢s first successful, permanent colony. When the Europeans arrived in 1606 with 104 men and boys hoping to find their riches in the New World, they found a largely empty landscape. Over the next few decades, the Jamestown people were able to thrive while the native populations were dying because the colonists had more advanced technology, Christianity, and European sensibilities. They were able to properly manage the empty, surrounding area, convert it to farmland, and grow highly profitable tobacco that helped spur further growth in what would become the US. However, itÃ¢â¬â¢s reality tells a much different story. The first colonists arrived in March and byShow MoreRelatedExchanging Our Country Marks by Michael Gomez.1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrecord in a stunning fusion that points the way to a definitive history of American Slavery. In this fusion of history, anthropology, and sociology, Gomez has made expert use of primary sources, including newspapers ads for runaway slaves in colonial America. Slave runaway accounts from newspapers are combined with personal diaries, church records, and former slave narratives to provide a firsthand account of the African and African-American experiences during the eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuriesRead MoreWhat Can Raise Awareness Of Sustainable Consumption Of Textiles For College Students1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexport earnings from these products to set up their own textiles production. The key to not having to repeat history is to strategically develop emerging markets According to Hill and Lee (2012) the apparel industry has specific negative impacts throughout the life cycle of apparel productivity. Due to the low levels of knowledge relevant to the environment, Generation Y is the future of our consumption. Hill and LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s (2012) study explored that Generation Y has little knowledge of the holisticRead MorePresident Roosevelt s New Deal1025 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFranklin Delano Roosevelt is consistently listed just behind Lincoln and Washington on ratings of American presidents by many historians. There are even some media sources, such as Newsweek and the Schlesinger Presidential Poll that list FDR as the top modern president. He was loved by the American people at the time, as evident by his four terms, the only president to do so. To the average and uninformed American, this may seem to be a fair assessment of the president that led his country out of the GreatRead MoreEffects Of European Expansion On America1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesK yle Young Ms. Hagler Western Civilization 3/08/16 The Effects of European Expansion For many generations, it was taught that the expansion of Europe to the Americas, (also known as the European expansion), had a huge impact on all societies of the old world. The importance of this was taught to societies all across the world, and was indeed a necessary occurrence. Up until recently, the idea was never given any real thought for the majority of people as to how, over many generations in the familyRead MoreModernization of Japan Essay1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJapan underwent rapid modernization due to the impacts of the West. Significant influences of the West caused Intensive and extensive transformation of japans feudal system to a modern industrialized nation. The arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry, Commander Ã¢â¬â in Ã¢â¬â Chief of US forces in 1853 was a major contribution to the Modernization of Japan. Perry had been sent to force the Japanese inhabitants to concede the following: Protection for American soldiers, opening of one or two ports for repairsRead MoreTechnology That Changed Global Living1586 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTechnologies that Changed Global Living Jasmin Mesner History to 1877 Dr. Monica Gallamore November 30, 2016 Ã¢â¬Æ' Jasmin Mesner Dr. Gallamore History to 1877 30 November 2016 There are many things in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world that help us every day that we do not realize how much it does. The internet helps us reach completely across the world in a matter of seconds. Cell phones help us reach people that we need to talk to and not have to wait weeks for a reply. What did we do before all the things we knowRead MoreThe Effect Of Globalization On Communities1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestheir growing abilities and changing environment, and each generation throughout history has had unique circumstances to learn from and deal with. The industrial revolution set the world on a much speedier path towards change which has been apparent in the last hundred years with growing cities and the rapid spread of technology. As the world establishes itself in the information age we find the connection between distant cultures becoming tighter and more intertwined. The effect of technology movingRead MoreA Backstabbing Country1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1900s. Although the reloca tion of Native Americans was far superior than the earlier genocide, it was still distant from the ideal Ã¢â¬Å"life, liberty, and pursuit of happinessÃ¢â¬ that the United States was hypothetically offering all people. When the English settlers first arrived to North America, they fought the Eastern Indians in a form of self-defense; however, in the late 1700s and early 1800s, the United States government started relocating Native Americans entirely because the government wantedRead MoreReducing the Divide between Young and Old1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdiscriminated against daily. In 1969 Robert Butler defined ageism as s Ã¢â¬Å"systematic stereotyping of and prejudices against people because they are oldÃ¢â¬ . There is a cost associated with ageism. Like the prejudices against women (sexism) and race (racism), the impact of ageism is and will be considerable. Older people can and do play a major role in our social and economic development, but we fail to recognize their potential and deny them a significant role in our cultural life (Butler). Ageism theory has typicallyRead MoreI Am Become Death, The Destroyer Of Worlds Essay1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesintended to be a history of the developmen t and deployment of nuclear weapons, I feel it is important to provide a brief background of that development and their use, both actual and as a deterrent, to better understand their worldwide influence. The 20th century has seen some revolutionary breakthroughs in the fields of science and technology. There have been many inventions and discoveries in the areas of telecommunications and electronics, but no single advance has had such a direct impact on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s
Friday, May 8, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Only the gold and silver flowed now, not from the coffers of the king, but from the purses of men who had made, say a fortune from industry, and returned, in their wills, a bounteous share of it to endow more chairs, more lectureships, more fellowships in the university where they had learnt their craftÃ¢â¬ (754). This is a quote from VirginiaÃ¢â¬â¢s WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"A Room of OneÃ¢â¬â¢s OwnÃ¢â¬ . Here she is making a point about universities and the funding that they received from men that had gone to school there. WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s essay takes place during the early nineteen hundreds when most women did not attend a university. There was great inequality of those who attended school because men had control over all the money. The men in society either receivedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thankfully times have changed, and women writers are recognized equally as men are today in society. The main reason is that women today have an equal chance at educat ion. Education today is open to everyone, because education can be paid for, or funded in various ways. Universities today are much easier to attend for anyone that wishes to go to school. There are so many different types of programs out there today that make education more affordable for people that do not have the assets to pay for an education themselves. There are many forms of financial aid available for specific groups of people. For example, there are scholarship programs set up specifically for women, or programs set up specifically for minorities. There are also programs set up for people with certain disabilities. These programs are set up in this sort of way to give everyone a chance to fit in to one of the specific categories. There are many ways to apply for these types of financial aid. You can do them through your high school, place of work, or even find them over the internet. What about the people that donÃ¢â¬â¢t fit into these specific categories? For these people, there are general financial aid programs established. These programs are set up by private, public, or government institutions. These programs include scholarships, student loans, grants, and many more. Many of these types of financial aidShow MoreRelatedVirginia Woolf: Just a Misunderstood Women948 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesparents were open minded, which at the time meant she was able to get some form of education. Both her mother and father were married before the eventually married one another. VirginiaÃ¢â¬â¢s education consisted of her being able to read books from the families well stocked Victorian library (Biography.com). WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s mother being a positive role model, was a nurse and wrote a book over the profession of nursing. WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s family seemed to be very well connected both socially and educationally. Her aunt was
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Desmond Tutu became one of South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s most out spoken annotator of apartheid. His religious belief was based upon the biblical teachings of Christ. Tutu believed in the biblical teaching of Galatians 3:28, Ã¢â¬Å"There is neither Jew, nor Greek, slave nor free, male more female, for you are all one in Christ JesusÃ¢â¬ (Gish 128). We will write a custom essay sample on Desmond Tutu or any similar topic only for you Order Now That particular biblical teaching taught of equality for all whites, blacks and colored people. Apartheid itself started off of as religion and that was the main reason why it was able to stand for so long was because of the Whites wrong interpretation of the Bible, that stated that : White people are superior to the Blacks but clearly it was not so in the eyeÃ¢â¬â¢s of God. Being a Christian to him meant objecting to racial discrimination and prejudice (http://countrystudies. us/south-africa/53. htm ). Tutu believed in what the Bible said as being true and correct Ã¢â¬Å"I now realize that it the true that God treats everyone on the same basisÃ¢â¬ (Act 10:34). It was the religious teachings in Christianity that motivated him rather than political hunger. As a priest Tutu felt that it was his responsibility to do what it was that God wanted him to do and racial segregation was not part of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan for South Africa. Tutu would often describe the Apartheid as Ã¢â¬Å"evil and unchristianÃ¢â¬ . He was influenced in his views by white clergymen, who were also opponent of apartheid. (http://teacherlink. ed. usu. edu/tlresources/units/byrnes-famous/desmond. htm). Tutu frequently told the government of South Africa that apartheid was not part of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan and that it was doomed for failure (http://www. sahistory. org. za/people/archbishop-emeritus-mpilo-desmond-tutu). What also motivated him was the fact that he too was also discriminated against for being Black, he was deprived the right to do basic duties of a citizen of South Africa (couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t vote, had to Carry a pass, etc) but he had the support of the Black and colored community which encouraged him to fight for equal civil rights for all, the abolition of South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s passport laws, and a common education system (http://www. oreorless. au. com/heroes/tutu. html ), (http://teacherlink. ed. usu. edu/tlresources/units/byrnes-famous/desmond. htm ). While Tutu was in London, England he found a Ã¢â¬Å"new worldÃ¢â¬ where there was respect for all people of every single skin color. The experience in London was exhilarating for TutuÃ¢â¬â¢s family, after the oppressio n under apartheid. Tutu was able to dabble in his love for cricket. He even has the opportunity to preach to a white congregation. Those few years spent in London fuel his urge to fight apartheid even more. http://www. sahistory. org. za/people/archbishop-emeritus-mpilo-desmond-tutu ). He wanted to make that change in South Africa. A few years after returning to South Africa Tutu was appointed the first black Archbishop of Cape Town in the Anglican Church. With such prestige power he was vigorously promoted Ã¢â¬Å"speak truth to powerÃ¢â¬ . He encouraged the use of non violent resistance by the blacks and also the world wide community by applying economic sanctions against the government of South Africa. As result of this the government threw him in prison for a short time frame and cancelled his passport (http://www. tutu. org/timeline/1976-1983/ ). Inevitably, Tutu began to speak out against the injustices of the apartheid system. He supported an international boycott to pressure his country into a peaceful reform; he was publically raising international awareness of what was really happening in South Africa. He tried to urge foreign companies to disinvest in South Africa particularly the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom. This was an effort to pressurize the government to break down and it soon succeeded (http://www. thefamouspeople. com/profiles/desmond-tutu-75. php ) (http://www. tutu. org/timeline/1976-1983/ ) (Gish 90). Tutu tireless anti apartheid campaigning during the 1980 eventually won him the Nobel peace prize. The Nobel committee cited this Ã¢â¬Å"role as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem in South AfricaÃ¢â¬ . He was chosen by President Nelson Mandel to chair South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s Truth and reconciliation commission, which was set up to investigate crimes that were committed during the apartheid regime. This committee acted as a healing body for all who was affected by the apartheid reign Ã¢â¬Å"people has been bottled up for so long that when the chance came for them to tell their stories, the floodgates openedÃ¢â¬ (http://www. tutu. org/peace-centre/), (http://www. justice. gov. za/trc/ ). Tutu used his faith in God, prayer, speeches, words, and non- violence to stand up for the rights of people in South Africa to fight apartheid. How to cite Desmond Tutu, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Opportunity is a matter of perception. It is not for every eye to spot opportunity. Only a perceptive eye can achieve this feat. Hair removal market in India has remained quiet and sleepy for very long until RB (Reckitt Benkiser) forayed into it with its Veet brand in 2006. And in a short span of seven years of its launch the brand transformed the category from a meager Rs 50 crores to Rs 350 crores creating a seven fold jump. The brand went on to become not only market leader but a dominant player leaving the incumbent brands far behind. It certainly is a remarkable marketing feat. But success is intoxicating. Success fuels desire to succeed further. For Rajneesh, marketing manager (personal care business) and Sandeep, brand manager (Veet), this certainly has been a milestone reached, but they both seem to concur that this market leadership of Veet is not an end itself rather a beginning. We will write a custom essay sample on Veet Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Though VeetÃ¢â¬â¢s claim to fame has been hair removal or hair depilation, this is not the only knitting to which the brand must stick for ever. How far can the brand go if it sticks to its territory of hair removal, certainly not very far? Both Rajneesh and Sandeep intuitively feel that Veet masks huge potential to become a mega brand simply if it manages to transcend its current product domain. Sticking to knitting is fine but it is also limiting. But a brand like Veet can grow leaps and bound if the brand finds new knitting. Amidst this conviction, there is confusion as to what course the brand should take and how. The Company Reckitt Benckiser is a multinational corporation with presence in over 180 countries. Its origin dates back to 1823 when Johann A. Benckiser laid its foundation. With over 150 years of existence the company is founded on British and German heritage. The company has distinguished itself for bringing innovative solution to meet customer needs. Reckitt Benckiser (RB) came into existence after the merger of Reckitt Colman and Benckiser in 1999. This merger created worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top house hold cleaning solution provider. RB operates in a number of high growth categories considered to be at the core of its business strategy: fabric care, surface care, dishwashing, home care, health care, personal care and food. Four of the top amongst these in terms of revenue are fabric care (22%), health care (26%), personal care (20%) and surface care (17%). The company has operations in 60 countries, sales in 180 countries and has had net revenues in excess of 6. 5 billion pounds last year. 4 Reckitt Benckiser India Ltd (RBIL) is a fully owned subsidiary of Reckitt Benckiser Plc. The year 2010 saw the company achieve very strong financial results despite not so positive economic conditions globally. Net revenues grew by 9% to ? 8,453m and adjusted operating profit was up by 18% to ? 2,231m. This performance, following a number of years of strong growth, is a testament to the global strength of the Companys strategy and execution, and the quality of its employees and their leadership. RB has strategically built an impressive brand portfolio in the above categories. Most of its brands consistently figure on the shopping list of customers worldwide. RBÃ¢â¬â¢s brands stand apart from others by combining an irresistible combination of innovation and value for money. A total of nineteen power brands drive company performance including Airwick, Dettol, Clearasil, Disprin, Harpic, Lisol, Mortein, Vanish, and Cherry Blossom. Most of these brands enjoy top positions in their respective markets. These are either number one or two in their categories. For instance, Lisol is a number one disinfectant brand in the US. The other brands that lead the category include Dettol (antiseptic), Vanish (fabric stain remover), Harpic (toilet cleaner) and Cherry Blossom (shoe polish). For RB India like other countries where it operates, most of its brands are top performers in their respective categories. A good innovative product when combined with ingenious marketing methods creates a mix par excellence. For instance a great marketing feat is achieved when an antiseptic brand like Dettol was completely transformed into to a health brand. Dettol subtly and strategically moved away from antiseptic yet leveraging its core benefit to become a brand embracing new product categories like toilet soap, shaving cream, talc, plaster and hand wash. CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s toilet bowl cleaner brand Harpic enjoys market leadership with a share close to 75%; glass surface cleaner Colin tops the category with about 88% share and mosquito repellent brand Mortein dominates the market with about 20% share. One of its recent launches, Vanish a fabric stain remover, went to create and dominate the fabric stain remover category. Most of these brands are either number 1 or number 2 in their respective categories in India The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products need a wide distribution set up in order to reach their target customers. Some of the products typically fall in the fast moving consumer categories which require servicing a wide market area. RBIL uses its common distribution channels for distribution of its products which enjoy wide and deep reach in Indian market. This is one of the important strengths of the company. The channel system of the company is managed by its well structured sales force which is accountable for ensuring supply and sales of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s entire product portfolio of more than one hundred and fifty stock keeping units. Quick way to leadership Veet brand was launched in India in 2004 and within a very short span of time it went on to become the category leader. At the time of its launch the total category sales stood at Rs 50 crores. Seven years later in 2010, Veet became a Rs 350 crore brand registering a seven fold increase in seven years since the time of its launch. Like many of the other RB brands, Veet is the number one depilatory brand in the world. It reigns at the top of the heap in the hair removal 5 products category. Following the global footprints, in India too, Veet has emerged as the top most hair removal brand. Prior to the launch of Veet, hair removal market was in a state of dormancy. Only a few brands competed in this space. One of them has been the Anne French brand from Wyeth Consumer Healthcare. India. This brand has been present in India for over four decades and as a result of its long existence in the market it developed a close connection with hair removal. Being probably the first mover and having been present in the market for a long period, the brand was not aggressively promoted. Its communication, few and in between stressed on the ease with which hair could be removed. The brand simply promoted how the product could be used to remove hair conveniently. The advertising of the brand followed an illustrative or demonstrated approach to explaining the prospective customers as to how hair could be removed by simply applying Anne French cream on the body to get rid of unwanted hair. The central idea centered on the product functionality. A period of long presence in the market can both be a burden and an advantage for a brand. It can be interpreted as heritage and hence excellence which could be leveraged to build brand strength. At the same time long existence can also imply Ã¢â¬ËoldÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËobsoleteÃ¢â¬â¢ and of Ã¢â¬ËyesteryearsÃ¢â¬â¢. It is in this context that a long standing brand requires a careful and tactful manoeuvre. Anne FrenchÃ¢â¬â¢s reality was somewhat similar. It was a brand with time of its side but it was not contemporized as time passed by. The result was a brand which enjoyed high recall and recognition and continuous support of customers. Rajneesh, Marketing Manager (personal care) is joyous over the feat that Veet managed to achieve: We studied the category and found immense potential waiting to be exploited. There were few players, at top Anne French followed by others like Fem. Anne French was known nationally with high recall and recognition in the target segment but here was a brand which was stuck in a time capsule. The brand was entirely promoted on the plank of product functionality. It focused on the ease of hair removal. But the brand image was not modernized to meet evolving desires and aspirations of target customers. Time or its long existence in the industry had rendered it fuddy-duddy meant to be used by only older customer. It was like Ã¢â¬Å¾my mom? s brand, not for me?. The writing on the wall seemed very clear. The category was shouting out loud for players to join and provide what children of a liberalized era wanted. Liberalization and its consequent impact on consumer economy and consumer psychology fueled the growth of segments closer in outlook with any developed market of the world. Sandeep, Brand Manager ( Veet) concurs with Rajneesh: 6 There has been a subtle shift from sustenance led consumption to pleasure seeking. People want excellence in product functionality, but this is only the starting point. Now customers are willing to pay more if the brand delivers something beyond product functions. If a brand can rise up in the value ladder and forges a connection, it would certainly be rewarded. Consumption Consumers are making a transition from sustenance to indulgence. We had a brand in our portfolio which led the depilation market world wide. And the Indian market seemed just right for its launch with only one issue that needed to be resolved and that was what approach the brand should take to take on the then existing players. Further examination of the category threw up other interesting insights. The products available in the hair removal category had not evolved with time and thus as a result these formulations were inferior to the ones marketed elsewhere. These were not improved over time. In a way these were primitive. This category suffered from lack of innovations. It was not just the product, even the marketing, especially communication did not convey any sense of excitement. The brands stuck on to the matter of fact reason centric copy, more like sponsored information. Ads showed how application of the product allowed easy hair removal. Relying too much on the Ã¢â¬Ëreason whyÃ¢â¬â¢, communication failed to activate emotional triggers. This probably has been due to the fact that product like this is not openly talked about. Hair removal deals with private parts and to promote this aggressively could have violated the sense and sensibilities of people twenty thirty years back. But things had moved on, yey brands did not. Veet needed a strategy by which it could directly connect with its customer better and at the same could set itself apart from other brands in the category. Rajneesh explained how Veet carefully negotiated this challenge: We were particular about making our objective of achieving brand leadership through innovation both in product and branding. Veet is a world class product with a superior innovative formulation. So we scored better on this count. However communication was a challenge. Instead of focusing on product functionality, we brought what customers seek by using a product like this at the centre of our brand building. Our strategy was to develop further on from superior hair removal and make a transition to benefits and we chose beauty and the confidence that comes as a result as the rallying point in our communication. We got our brand endorsed by Katrina Kaif, one of the top actresses in Bollywood. Katrina? s endorsement allowed the brand to develop strong linkage with words like the Ã¢â¬Å¾beauty? , Ã¢â¬Å¾attractive? , Ã¢â¬Å¾success? and Ã¢â¬Å¾modern?. The ads showed how using Veet makes skin smooth and attractive. Katrina was shown as arresting the attention of the opposite sex after product usage and gesticulating Ã¢â¬Å¾V? for victory at the audience. The brand communication found an instant connection with its target customers. It built resonance by relating with below the surface desires to be beautiful and ultimately be attractive to the opposite sex. Hair removalÃ¢â¬â¢s instrumentality in achieving higher order goal made the 7 brand an instant hit. It did not take much time for the brand to emerge as the category leader (see exhibit 1). Veet managed to put action into a sleepy category with the result that both the category and the brand expanded impressively (see exhibit 2) Market Reality VeetÃ¢â¬â¢s emergence as the dominant player in the hair removal category is certainly an appreciable achievement. But a perceptive glance at the market also reveals that there lies phenomenal opportunity to catapult the brand on to a higher valuation if the total market expands. First of all the category is not yet fully penetrated. Hair removal penetration is relatively lower in India as compared to other markets of the world. Only about a 68% percent of the people do depilation compared to above 80% in developed countries like the US, France and Spain. Hair removal penetration is even lesser for arms and legs at 40%. Secondly there is tremendous scope to multiply per capita consumption if customers who visit to salons for depilation could be shift to self depilation. The Ã¢â¬Ësalon onlyÃ¢â¬â¢ market is larger in North and West India. The usage of hair removal products is related to age. Its consumption goes down with age. The user of the category tends to be younger, single and educated. More than half (54%) of the women in the age group of 15-34 years use hair removal products and this percentage drops to 39% for 34-44 years age group. This goes down further to 18% for 45-65 years age group. The category consumption is also related to social grade. People in the higher social group are greater users of hair removal products. The Indian market is not much different when it comes to product usage concern. Hair removal product penetration/usage in terms of body parts is similar to that in other countries. The application areas for hair removal products are face, underarms, arms, stomach area, bikini line, upper legs and lower legs. The top three application areas in India are underarms, bikini area and face. This is in line with other markets. The Indian customer differs from the others with respect to usage on legs. Upper leg and lower leg usage in India is 11% and 24% which is much lower than 59% and 93% in other markets. Hair removal products are very intimate and personal. The path between Veet and customer is not straight and simple. It is full of myths and psychological barriers. Rajneesh explains: The industry offers hair removal solutions in the form of waxes, creams, and razors. And each of these products comes with their own perception baggage, some parts of which are positive and some negative. Razor is quick but difficult to use and does not give the smooth effect. Wax is cumbersome, messy, time consuming but is perceived to remove hair from the root, effect lasts longer and gives smooth effect. Creams are easy to use, gives smooth skin but people perceive that creams make skin dark and these are chemical formulations. This perceptual bias works against creams, hence against Veet. The usage of hair removal products can be broadly classified into two categories. Creams are used mainly for Underarms and bikini area. This is hygiene depilation. Arms and legs depilation is guided by the consideration of beauty. These are exposed part of the body and hair on them makes the person 8 unattractive. This is beauty depilation. Data on the product usage and application area is give in exhibit 4, a careful glance reveals that there is a scope for Veet to become bigger if it penetrates into application area where waxes and razors are used more. Sandeep, the brand manager for Veet articulated the challenge: The brand can become bigger if a shift in the product usage type is achieved. Wax is dominantly used for beauty depilation. There is an opportunity for a brand like Veet to expand by shifting people from wax to creams. Cream usage is higher for hygiene depilation. The usage of razor is also high for underarms and bikini area depilation. Hair removal for beauty involves bigger quantity usage hence this shift promises big opportunity. Waxing is predominantly a parlour activity. It is not simply the process of getting rid of unwanted hair for beauty purposes for which parlors are visited. Factually waxing is time consuming, messy, painful and a joint process. With all its negatives waxing looks like an inferior solution to customer needs compared to creams. Creams are neither messy nor painful. They save visit to parlour and are empowering. Therefore a shift from wax to cream is logical. Reading this opportunity a cold wax strip variant of Veet was launched. The anticipation was that the market would explode and target customer would lap it up. By this extension it was expected that Veet would steal a large market away from parlours. The ready to use cold strip version of Veet was met with only part success. Instead of getting into a permanent routine, it ended up being a solution only for emergency situations. One manÃ¢â¬â¢s reason is anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s unreason. There has to be something more than simply hair removal in a visit to a beauty parlour. Had it not been so then cold wax strip of Veet would have become a blockbuster success. Waxing and hence a visit to a parlour is rooted in the psycho-social reality of women. A visit to a parlour apparently involves planning, taking time off, and undergoing the pain, yet the shift to creams is not easy to achieve. There is something more, highlights Rajneesh: A beauty parlour is not simply a functional space. It is cherished for its own psychological and social significance. Women do not simply visit for waxing rather their visit is combined with other beauty routines like eye brow shaping, pedicure and manicure etc.. Besides these Ã¢â¬Å¾reasons why? there are other implicit needs which parlours satisfy. Parlours are pampering places. The beauty routines performed on customers by the staff creates an uneven power equation where the women assume power over the server. It gives a great feeling. Parlours are also exclusive meeting places with friends; the interactions with staff evolve from a professional relationship to a personal relationship. Here people can freely gossip, exchange ideas and learn beauty tips. Beauty parlours are not only direct competitors to Veet but also bad ones. In order to protect their market and perpetuate dependence, parlours are also myth generating places. Customers hold parlour staff as knowledgeable and expert. Directly or indirectly a bad word about creams is spread such as creams are harsh chemicals and therefore the skin can get damaged, usage of creams leaves dark spot and creams remove hair from surface without taking them off the roots. This has been obstructing the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s growth, Sandeep feels: Veet comes in different sizes. The international 100 gm which sell the most in western countries does not move that fast here. Veet also comes in a 60 gm pack, which is about 25% contribution. A small pack of 25 gm was launched to facilitate trials. But this variant went on to become the 9 largest seller. The sale of smaller pack implies that first of all people do not use cream for beauty depilation (arms and legs) because it requires larger quantity. Secondly this pack too is kept to meet unexpected emergency situations. Getting people to use Veet for beauty depilation is an important marketing challenge. New Knitting All through Veet has been guided by the understanding that for customers ultimately hair removal is not an end itself. Customer ultimately wants to look and feel beautiful and to be attractive to others. Accordingly brandÃ¢â¬â¢s communication strategically focused on benefits such as smooth skin and beauty and kept the hair removal in the background. Quite unlike other brands in the category which rallied the idea of hair removal and ease or product functionality, Veet built its equity based on emotions (Ã¢â¬Ëconfidence that comes with smoothnessÃ¢â¬â¢). The ad execution typically followed a concept very similar to beauty brands use celebrities or attractive model as emotion triggers. It is in this context Katrina Kaif who epitomizes success, beauty and sensuality, played a significant role. VeetÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy combining an innovative superior product with excitement and glamour of a beauty brand paid off very well. Leadership surely is satisfying but this canÃ¢â¬â¢t be everything. Explains Rajneesh: There have been many instances when a successful brand went on to become a mega brand by crossing over its existing product boundary. For instance, Dettol evolved from being solely an antiseptic lotion brand. It has become a dominant health and hygiene brand and accordingly apart from antiseptic lotion it enjoys a wider range of products in its fold such as bathing bar, talc, shaving cream and hand wash. On almost similar lines, one of the bathing bar brands, which for a long period of time was exclusively sold for its Ã¢â¬Å¾1/4 moisturizing cream? has gone on to become a much bigger brand. The brand now sells shampoo, lotions and creams along with its original product ,a bathing bar. The brand essence of Ã¢â¬Å¾1/4 moisturizing cream? was reinterpreted as Ã¢â¬Å¾less damage or damage free? to support products in other categories. One option for Veet is to be content with its leadership and stick to its knitting and build volumes within this space. Second is to make a transition to becoming a bigger beauty brand or find a new knitting. Does Veet have a legitimate right to do so? Examples are illustrative. A lot can be learnt from examples but blindly following the success model of others is full of risks. But then there are many good examples in the industry which show how some brands move on with time by not just withstanding the challenges unleashed by change, but rather by proactively converting these into business opportunity (see exhibit 5). Within the hair removal market, Veet is marketed in different variants both in terms of sizes (25, 60, and 100 gm) and types to suit application and skin type (normal, dry, skin and suprem essence). Same is the case for its wax strips. These are marketed in three variants-for normal, dry and sensitive skin. This strategy to extract volume by market penetration has contributed to VeetÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership in the hair removal market. It is a critical time for the brand. It probably is a time for the brand to make a transition. Its equity could be leveraged to build business in other categories. This is only possible if the customers find the brand relevant in the beauty space. The body routine includes primarily four care areas: face, body, fragrance, and bath (exhibit 6). There are a number of brands worth emulating, points out Sandeep: 10 Brands like Ponds, Vaseline and Dove are particularly instructive. Pond? s earlier was cold cream, Vaseline was known exclusively as petroleum jelly and Dove was a bathing bar. Consider now, all of these brands have made a very successful transition into becoming multiproduct brands. The time probably has arrived for us to explore new pastures for Veet by transforming it into a beauty brand. Optimism is fine, but wrong moves sometimes can backfire and erode the equity of a primary brand. We certainly do not want the brand to make a blind move. For Veet to succeed in new product categories the brand must add a relevant and differentiating dimension. In this context Veet has cultivated equity based on Ã¢â¬Ësmooth skin benefitÃ¢â¬â¢ supported by aspiration and attraction created by its celebrity endorser. The following statements summarize customersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings towards the brand: Ã¢â¬Å"Veet makes our skin feel smooth after using itÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Katrina fits the brand as we all want our skin to be like hersÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Veet has better fragrance as compared to other playersÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å" I generally don? t require to apply cream afterwards, it has some moisturizing lotionÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Veet is an international brandÃ¢â¬ ; and Ã¢â¬Å"It? less painful than waxing and less risky than using razor. It doesn? t make our hair hardÃ¢â¬ On the whole the brand comes across as sophisticated, premium and international. Endorsement by Katrina Kaif has contributed to the creation of brandÃ¢â¬â¢s personality as glamorous, stylish, and sophisticated. The values associated with the brand are: good fragrance works in three minutes, easy to use, and leaves the skin smooth. Optimism and Caution Veet enjoys a clear functional advantage over its rival brands in its home category of hair removers. It also enjoys equity based on non-functional aspects. The Exhibit 7 provides a critical look at the brand. VeetÃ¢â¬â¢s functional value delivery runs common across competitive brands except that its fragrance makes it different. The associations such as Ã¢â¬ËinternationalÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËsophisticatedÃ¢â¬â¢ are relevant for a select set of customers which makes its appeal limited to a premium niche. Other customers may find it difficult to relate with the brand. The glamour and sex appeal added by its endorser may be perceived as superficial in the absence of credible credentials as a beauty brand. Exhibit 8 shows the imagery associated with the brand. The brand conjures images of confidence, carefree, glowing, glamorous, and smooth and supple skin. Do these associations make the brand ready to take a plunge into the beauty space? These associations do create lure and temptations but this is insufficient. The brand must offer some differentiated value to customers to create pull. Since its launch, Veet has managed to establish its credibility in the hair removal space with Ã¢â¬Ësmooth skinÃ¢â¬â¢ benefit. The growth trajectory for the brand can take three forms: first, extending the core range of hair removal product by launching different hair removal products and moving up to premium formats (product centric). This has already been done. Second, the brand can move into new product categories beyond its core product domain by directly stretching on the core proposition of Ã¢â¬Ësmooth skinÃ¢â¬â¢ (benefit centric) and retaining the association of hair removal. Third, this is an indirect path to grow the brand. This would involve exploring brand growth avenues by extending the brand into beauty category. This can only be achieved when the brand connections are based on non-product or abstract considerations like Ã¢â¬Ësmoothness and beautyÃ¢â¬â¢ (see exhibit 9). 11 Personal care consists of a number of routines. These include caring for the face, hand, hair, and skin (see exhibit 10). The overall depilatory market is limited to a small portion of the total personal care market. Sticking to the depilatory market severely limits by its size and growth prospects. Veet can grow if it is able to branch into other underleveraged segments of the personal care market. The feeling that runs through the team behind the brand is that of optimism and caution. Both marketing manager and brand manager at Reckitt Benckiser agree: There is an opportunity for transforming Veet into a Ã¢â¬Å¾beauty brand?. But this is not a cake walk either. Specifically we need a road map with a complete milestone plan for the next five years for making Veet a beauty brand. There are very specific issues which need to be addressed: first of all what needs to be done to move Veet? s equity from being a Ã¢â¬Å¾hair removal brand with some smooth skin connect? to a Ã¢â¬Å¾true beauty brand ?. Second, the new segments in which Veet can enter in the personal care space. Third, what new products with relevant product differentiators could be launched in new segments? And finally, what specific initiatives must be undertaken so that this transition is smoothly achieved? It has been a long time since anything like this has been initiated. Everyone agrees on the point that there is an opportunity waiting to be exploited by Veet but at the same time doubts also cloud thinking. Global marketing head of Reckitt Benckiser who is expected to arrive in India for a review meeting has posted the following concerns: Veet has all along been a depilatory brand known to provide Ã¢â¬Å¾smooth skin? benefit, how is the brand going to be seen by customers in other categories? There are strongly entrenched players in the beauty market. What blueprint does Veet have to succeed against these giants in the beauty space? What differentiating value would Veet bring to beauty customers in order to push the purchase trigger? Success in hair removal market does impose and create a baggage on the brand which may hinder its smooth transition to beauty category. What tactical maneuvering would this require? And above all it is very critical to choose the right category and right now it is unclear as to what categories are more suitable than the others. Apart from the above concerns, it is important to spell out what the brand should do to exploit its equity in the interim period before new products are launched. How should the brand build further on its beauty appeal and take it to a higher level so that later the brand is not seen with skepticism in the beauty category? Apart from the transitioning issue, right now what can be done to make Veet even a bigger brand in its home turf of hair removal?